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The amount of cloth required will vary depending on how lucky you are. To do this as cheaply as possible, start by buying the minimum amount and then buy more as needed. Craft Linen Bandage 1 linen cloth per bandage. Craft Heavy Linen Bandage 2 linen cloth per bandage. This turns green at 75— unfortunately you just have to deal with it. Craft Wool Bandage 1 wool cloth per bandage. Craft Heavy Wool Bandage 2 wool cloth per bandage. Craft Silk Bandage 1 silk cloth per bandage.
Learn or purchase Manual: Heavy Silk Bandage.
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Craft Heavy Silk Bandage 2 silk cloth per bandage. Learn or purchase Manual: Mageweave Bandage. There was insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the optimal duration of irrigation. Chau, et al. Kuckelkorn, et al. In patients receiving immediate rinsing, fewer operations were required, there was a significantly shorter length of hospital stay and there was significantly better visual outcome. However, even eyes with immediate first-aid showed severe damage. Kuckelkorn states that this may have been due to inappropriate first-aid, because even though initial irrigation was carried out, it was not continued for at least 30 minutes in any of the cases.
In their review of the science behind first-aid practices, the American Heart Association and American Red Cross recommend the following for chemical burns of the skin:.
The ANSI standard for emergency eyewash and shower equipment defines "flushing fluid" as any of potable drinking water, preserved water, preserved buffered saline solution or other medically acceptable solutions. ANSI Z The commonly accepted standard of minutes is recommended for moderate to severe irritants.
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To remove chemicals that are not irritating or are very mildly irritating, a 5-minute rinse, or rinsing until the product is removed, should be sufficient. It is preferable that complete decontamination of the skin or eyes occur on-site.
Bronstein, et al. Edlich, et al. Note: Refer to " lukewarm water " for information regarding water temperature. Direct contact with a liquefied compressed gas or gas under pressure can cause serious tissue damage. Brief contact with a small amount of the liquid may not pose as great a danger because a protective vapour film may form.
Danger of freezing occurs when large amounts are spilled and exposure is extensive. H2 Safety Best Practices, Medical assistance for a cryogenic-induced injury should be obtained as soon as possible. Treatment of frozen tissue requires medical supervision because incorrect first-aid practices will aggravate the injury.
The speed of re-warming must be carefully controlled, as should the temperature. There is a high risk of infection and medical control of pain may be necessary. For these reasons, rewarming should not be attempted onsite unless medical assistance cannot be obtained within a reasonable amount of time.
Abbot, , Currance, et al. It is safest to do nothing except protect the affected area with a loose cover and transport the injured person to a medical facility. How to respond to accidental ingestion of a chemical has been the subject of much debate. What is clear is that the recommendation to induce vomiting or perform gastric emptying CANNOT be made without careful consideration of many factors, including:.
Although it is a difficult issue to study, some researchers have shown clinical benefit from gastric emptying in patients with serious overdoses when gastric emptying is accomplished within 1 hour after ingestion. Other researchers are unable to describe any benefit at all.
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Detailed review of these studies can be found in references Nelson, et al. Safety Data Sheets should NOT recommend inducing vomiting, but should refer the first-aid provider to a Poison Center or a doctor for advice. The position statement is a systematically developed clinical guideline based on high-quality research evidence. The Position Statement on Ipecac Syrup concludes that:. The American Association of Poison Control Centers also conducted an evidence-based review of the use of ipecac syrup for the out-of-hospital management of ingested poisons. Manoguerra, et al. The FDA acceptance of this recommendation will likely end the use of ipecac as a treatment for toxic ingestions Shannon, To date, the FDA has not made a decision on the status of ipecac syrup, however most pharmacies no longer stock it.
Pfister, et al. Much of what we know about the benefits of diluting an ingested chemical with water or milk is based on in vitro test tube and ex vivo using harvested rat esophagi studies. Based on their evaluation of the evidence for dilution with milk or water, the American Heart Association and American Red Cross state:.
Single-dose activated charcoal treatment involves the oral administration or instillation by nasogastric tube of an activated charcoal water solution.
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The activated charcoal adsorbs toxic chemicals in the gastrointestinal tract, decreasing the absorption of the chemical and reducing or preventing systemic toxicity. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists have issued a position statement on the use of single-dose activated charcoal. The position statement on single-dose activated charcoal is accepted by other organizations, including the Canadian Association of Poison Control Centres and the American Board of Applied Toxicology and concludes that:.
The current consensus is that activated charcoal should NOT be routinely administered as a first-aid procedure, for the following reasons:. Poison control or emergency medical specialists may advise the administration of activated charcoal based on their assessment of a specific poisoning incident.
This section presents a system to help make appropriate, consistent, easy-to-apply first-aid recommendations for Safety Data Sheets. The mandatory label phrases of the GHS, 3rd and 4th revised editions, have been consulted during preparation of these Safety Data Sheet phrase recommendations. The GHS label text has been incorporated or kept consistent for all hazards, except:. Before using this system, certain information about the chemical or product must be gathered. The specific information needed from each of these four areas and the reason for its inclusion is described in this section.
If certain information for the product is not available, and a professional judgement cannot be made using information available for related products, it is prudent to make an assumption that will result in the most conservative first-aid procedures.
For example, if the flammability of a product is unknown, assume the product is flammable. If the water solubility of a product is unknown, assume it is not water-soluble. Both of these decisions will result in first-aid recommendations conservative enough to alleviate any potential hazard. A worksheet is provided to assist you in gathering the information required for making first-aid decisions. This information helps determine which exposure routes and first-aid measures are relevant for a particular product.
For example, ingestion is not a relevant route of exposure for a gas. To make their removal easier, products that are not water-soluble should be quickly blotted or brushed from the skin, before flushing with water. In addition, mild, non-abrasive soap may facilitate the removal of products that are not water soluble or are oily or adherent.
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Houston and Hendrickson, This information allows modification of the recommendation to reduce contact of the chemical with water, by quickly blotting or brushing the chemical away, prior to flushing. Oxidizers create a fire hazard by producing oxygen or another oxidizing substance. This information is needed so recommendations can advise that contaminated clothing be removed immediately and submersed in water so that it does not become a fire hazard. The product could be a significant fire hazard in an emergency situation. Recommendations should include warning the first-aid provider to take appropriate precautions, such as removing all sources of ignition.
Also, the product should be removed from the exposed person. A product can pose an immediate health threat to the first-aid provider if it is a simple asphyxiant, very acutely toxic by any route of exposure, or corrosive. In these cases, it is essential that the first-aid provider be protected when responding to incidents involving these chemicals.
Note: Advise the use of specific protective equipment, for example, butyl rubber gloves rather than "impervious" gloves. The degree of irritancy can be used to determine the duration of rinsing recommended for skin or eye contact. Chemicals can cause frostbite or freeze tissue if they have a low boiling point below 0 deg C 32 deg F. Pulmonary edema is a life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs.
It interferes with the ability of oxygen to cross through the lungs into the body. Oxygen, as a first-aid measure, may help victims who develop symptoms of pulmonary edema. Symptoms of pulmonary edema may not appear for up to 48 hours after exposure. Anyone with a significant exposure to a chemical that can cause pulmonary edema must be made aware of this delay. Chlorine and ammonia are examples of chemicals that can cause rapid pulmonary edema. Phosgene and nitrogen dioxides can cause delayed pulmonary edema. Oxygen may be helpful as a first-aid measure for chemicals that can interfere with the body's use of oxygen, for example, by:.
Some chemicals, for example hydrocarbons that have low viscosity, can easily get into the lungs aspirated during ingestion or vomiting and attack lung tissue.
taylor.evolt.org/xejep-quiero-conocer-chicas.php In this case, a Poison Center or doctor should be called immediately, and vomiting should never be induced. Therefore, direct mouth-to-mouth contact should be avoided, and barrier devices should be used.